A sign of our culture’s preoccupation with bean-counting male and female contributions in various fields, the study reported on in this Chronicle of Higher Education article is interesting for the scope of its data: 2 million authors from 1665 to 2010. Here is an interactive chart showing data on not only various fields in selected periods, but also sub-fields. Also, more than half, 1.1 million of the papers surveyed were published after 1991–in less than 20 years.

Interesting side note:
The chart shows at least two categories with declines in the number of authors publishing papers: Plant Physiology and Classical Studies. I guess we’re nearing full knowledge about plants, and knowledge of theĀ  classical past is so irrelevant to modern man.